This blog post is an addendum to the article, Build a Xamarin App with Authentication and Offline Support, to be published in MSDN Magazine, September 2015. I'll update this post with a link once the article is available. Part 1, Cloud-Connected Mobile Apps – Create a Web Service with Azure Web Apps and WebJobs, which discusses the backend of the project, is available now.
To summarize from the article: Xamarin.Forms is a framework that lets you use a single code base to implement apps with UI on multiple target platforms. However, as written in Part 2, "shared code doesn’t much reduce the effort needed to thoroughly test the app on each target platform: that part of your process will take about as long as it would if you wrote each app natively. Also, because Xamarin.Forms is quite new [it first came out in May 2014], you may find platform-specific bugs or other behaviors that you'll need to handle in your code."
That particular statement comes from direct experience! Here are the behaviors we encountered with Altostratus and had to manage in the client app code (http://aka.ms/altostratusproject, in the MobileClient project):
- The Xamarin.Forms ListView control supports grouping, but not invocation of group headers as is supported on some individual platforms. We would have liked to enable this feature in the app, but chose not to until Xamarin.Forms makes it work.
- ListView headers appear on iOS 7 but don’t appear on iOS 8. This is a known bug in Xamarin.Forms.
- On iOS and Windows Phone, the OnAppearing and OnDisappearing events for page navigations happen in the expected order: the originating page receives an OnDisappearing before the target page receives an OnAppearing. There’s a significant Xamarin.Forms bug on Android (and here's a duplicate bug) that causes the target’s OnAppearing to fire first. For this reason it’s necessary in the app's Configuration page to update the page’s overall changed status with every UI activity, rather than just check it once within OnDisappearing. This clearly causes a lot of extra churn.
- On all platforms, setting the Minimum property of a Slider control (as used on the Configuration page) will throw an exception unless Maximum is already set to a higher value. This makes it difficult to set the values through data binding, because the order in which XAML binding statements are processed is indeterminate. For this reason, these properties are set in code rather than through data binding. See https://bugzilla.xamarin.com/show_bug.cgi?id=21181 and https://bugzilla.xamarin.com/show_bug.cgi?id=23665.
- Data binding the items in a drop-down listbox is not supported at the time of writing.
- The Xamarin.Forms WebView control is written to fire a Navigating event when the user attempts to navigate a link within the WebView. In the mobile client, we capture this event to specifically disallow navigation directly within the control and redirect the navigation to the default browser, see the code in Altostratus Extra #3. (The code for this is in the ItemPage constructor in ItemPage.xaml.cs.) However, on iOS and Windows Phone 8.1, but not Android, the Navigating event is also raised when the WebView is initialized from local content. This means that on those platforms we want to ignore the first Navigating event, whereas on Android we want to pay attention to all of them. So we just set a flag (navigateToBrowser) within the ItemPage constructor to control whether we delegate a navigation to the browser.
The lesson to be learned here is that when platform technologies always have their bugs, especially new ones but often mature ones as well. If something you think should be happening isn't, or you encounter some other behavior that seems odd and especially those that are inconsistent between operating systems, check into the applicable bug database like bugzilla.xamarin.com, or check on the applicable forums. It'll save you plenty of frustration.